Saturday, December 21, 2019

The Theory Of Free Will - 950 Words

As a concept, free will offers a tremendous opportunity to pursue rationality of purpose. Within this rationality, individuals find wisdom whenever they exercise it appropriately. Both Skinner and Bandura state that free will explore the determinant to the ability of humanity to discover the space around them (Koons, 2002). Over time, philosophers have maintained that free will offers itself as a gift to humanity. It is presumed, therefore, that free will is God’s ordination, and as such, man should not precede it. In the same vein, the authors suggest that, if not exercised properly, free will becomes a curse, a total scourge to humanity. In this context, free will can transmute into a deadly weapon that impedes the general well-being of†¦show more content†¦Skinner and Bandura in their studies acknowledged that determinist ideologists have a way of conceptualizing the significance of socializing while recognizing that certain sets of behavior often guide such associ ations. Bandura and Skinner acknowledge that compatibilist thinking appreciates that the allocating of praise and blame as effective ways of securing social control among societies. Determinists, therefore, have a way of encouraging individuals to undertake labeling acts that put individuals’ actions on the glare of either right or wrong. Within these considerations, Bandura and Skinner promote that punishing the persons who commit acts seen in the estimation of the society, as wrongs are necessary to perpetuate the determinist ideology. (Shultz, 2013) On the other hand, rewarding the individuals who commit acts deemed as right in the estimation of the society are needed, as this will most likely make the society a flawless institution. Under these schemes of things, liberty is the tag of an ideal society, and every society must strive to partake of the norm. Skinner observes that humanity has a duty to enhance freedom as a societal norm in all societies. Accordingly, this is the first step in advancing the concept of free will as a societal embracement. Finally, within compatibilist ideologies, the idea of free will donate new certainties that reinforce old beliefs that clash with false views in the process. While

Friday, December 13, 2019

Jackal Reaction Paper Free Essays

In â€Å"Moral Mazes†, Robert Jackal explores the elements of bureaucracy and its influencing prevailing form in the American work environment in the different organizational levels of hierarchy. Upon reading this businesses best seller, I was very skeptical about Jackal’s research and ideas. Jackal’s study, scrutinizing only a handful of large and mid-sized companies, gave me the impression of lack of breadth. We will write a custom essay sample on Jackal Reaction Paper or any similar topic only for you Order Now However, the meticulous and depth of the study of each of these organizations truly gave me a great sense of credulousness. Although I believe that not all the companies behave the way Jackal portrays his selected companies, they do illustrate common aspects that I can observe in real corporations and in my own work place. This reaction paper will explore specific areas of â€Å"Moral Mazes† that illustrate organizational culture in American businesses and how bureaucratic organizational structure maps out moral consciousness that relate directly to my personal and professional life. These specific areas of discussion include: inner circles and connections; decentralization and accountability; team player versus self-promotion; and finally, image and public illusion. Jackall introduces Max Weber’s description of the Protestant ethic as to the set of beliefs and binding social rules that guide the methodical, rational subjection of human impulse and desire to God’s will through â€Å"restless, continuous, systematic work in a worldly calling† (Jackall, 2010, p. 6). Furthermore, Jackall presents Weber’s Prussian model of bureaucracy, which is objective, close to detail, standardized, impersonal and separates the offices from persons (Jackall, 2010, p. 10). I agree with Jackall that these two terms, Protestant ethic and the Prussian model of bureaucracy, are idealistic systems in which any kind organization would run efficiently and smoothly. The reason why I support these ideas is because I believe hard work, like the Protestant ethic preaches, can lead someone towards success. Moreover, with Weber’s Prussian model of bureaucracy, processes would be fair and objective. Unfortunately, I also believe that these are not the sole ingredients to succeed. Protestant ethics eventually lead people to accumulate wealth, which then sparked a domino effect towards bureaucracy. Jackall describes patrimonial bureaucracy, which was the organizational form of kings and princes, as personal loyalty being the norm, not loyalty to an office (Jackall, 2010, p. 11). However, modern American organizations are administrated as a hybrid between the pure form of bureaucracy and the patrimonial bureaucracy (Jackall, 2010, p. 11). This leads me into my first point of inner circles and connections. Even Jackall himself ironically channeled through bureaucratic elevators through the core of his study that was the basis of this book. Originally, Jackall was rejected by thirty six different corporations that did not want to be ethically studied and gave suspicious excuses like they were going through â€Å"transitional phases† and that there were no tangible organizational benefits to be gained from a study of managerial ethics. Talking to the right people however, Jackall was â€Å"vouched for† and was able to penetrate several high ranked executives in the few companies that he meticulously studied as well as gained the trust of many managers that gave him great insight upon ethical issues within their organizations. Jackall illustrates this â€Å"if you know people, you’ll go to places† idea once again in Chapter 2 with the example of Weft Corporation’s new CEO who staffed all key positions with people form his inner circles as well as with people who served under him in the Army during World War II (Jackal, 2010 p. 35). I agree with Jackall that connections can lead you to places because I have a friend that got a very prestigious managerial position in a big insurance company in Canada where his uncle is currently CEO. When CEO’s have power it is said to be a centralized business, however, decentralization creates a more efficient spectrum in the business side of the organization. As Jackall states, decentralization pushes down responsibilities and decisions as far down the organizational line as possible (Jackall, 2010, p. 18). In a decentralized structure, it gives top executives to take credit for positive outcomes and wash their hands when there are failures by pushing down details along with responsibilities and decisions. This was the case with Enron and the top executives playing dumb when everyone was trying to point fingers. For example, Kenneth Lay, former CEO and chairman of Enron, genuinely believed and accepted that he did not know anything about the Enron scandals and procedures. This is an example of lack of accountability and how pushing down details allows superiors to get off the hook. Another important consequence that pushing down of details create is the fact that middle managers, who know the details, become the â€Å"point men† or â€Å"fall guys† when things go wrong (Jackal, 2010, p. 22). This lack of accountability is truly disturbing and unfair. In my old job at a stainless steel company where I worked in the marketing department, a coworker got blamed for missing a deadline that was not clearly stated by her manager. She almost ended up losing her job and, instead of being accountable for the mistake, her manager blamed her for not paying close attention to her instructions. My next point of discussion involves the relationship between being a â€Å"team player† and the concept of â€Å"every man for himself†. Like Jackall states that, in order to get ahead, one must be a team player. Jackall uses an analogy where a football team is the organization. For example, the quarter back is the boss and a player is anyone who has a stake in and is involved in a decision, etc. I only partially agree with Jackall’s view where being a team player will get you ahead because in some way one must play as a team and cooperate with one another in order to reach similar goals. However, I lean more towards Jackall’s cynical and somber reality of individuality and self-promotion. I believe that one can get ahead by how he presents himself and how well he sells himself. Like Jackall explains, one sells oneself and will differentiate from others with the right style (Jackall, 2010, p. 0). I recently got an internship with Northwestern Mutual. They are currently ranked in the top ten internship programs in the country. I personally do not have a stacked up resume or anything like that, but I sold myself very well in the initial interview, presented myself even better and left them with a memorable first impression. In order to leave a la sting and impressive self-brand one must â€Å"dress for success†. Like Jackall describes, bureaucracies not only rationalize work, buy they rationalize people’s public face (Jackall, 2010, p. 49). I could not agree more with Jackall on this idea. I believe that image and professionalism separates the dominating and strong from the weak. Even if it is a facade, external appearances are critical. This part of the â€Å"mask† that Jackall mentions throughout this book. In relation to image Jackall mentions public perception or illusion in one of his interviews: â€Å"The whole thing becomes a complicated game of maintaining the public perception, the illusion really, that I’m on the move† (Jackall, 2010, p. 47). I believe that task oriented skills will only get you so far, but it is the perception that you have on others what is truly going to propel you. Concluding this paper, I want to remark the importance of networking, connections and relationships one nurtures throughout one’s personal and professional career. One never knows which will become an important stepping-stone towards a successful and happy career. In relation to decentralizing organizations, it is easy for top executives to wash their hands when something goes wrong. Being accountable not only shows character, it is also the right thing to do. Moreover, balancing both factors of â€Å"team player† and â€Å"self-promotion† not only will one have a strong equilibrium but will also maintain the right tools to get ahead successfully. Finally, wearing that â€Å"mask† and portraying the illusion to maintain a strong image is a dependable skill worth polishing and implementing. I originally thought of Moral Mazes as a difficult read due to the sophisticated and eloquent language used by Jackall, but I quickly caught into it, especially re-reading certain sections after our class discussions. It really surprised me how people’s perceptions differ throughout the different situational and moral dilemmas. Even though it is financially difficult to achieve, it would be interesting to read a large-scale study version of Moral Mazes. 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Thursday, December 5, 2019

Unemployment in Australia in Last 5 Years †Myassignmenthelp.Com

Question: Discuss About the Unemployment in Australia in Last 5 Years? Answer: Introduction In current, unemployment has become a serious issue that mainly exists in the economies of the nations. It has become a major subject of concern for most of the nation. The increased rate of unemployment is influencing the economic growth and development of nations in a negative manner. The situation of unemployment occurs if a nation is unable to provide jobs to its unemployed people. Along with this, unemployment is a key measure that is required to determine economy health of a nation in an effectual and a more comprehensive manner. But, nowadays, the problem of unemployment is rising very fast; and it may create difficulties in the economic growth as well as development of a country. Moreover, the problem of unemployment is also exists in the economy of Australia. The economy of Australia is stronger than any other nation; but unemployment made the economy weak somewhat. On the other hand, unemployment rate of Australia has increased in recent years. But, in 2016, there can be seen a decrease in the unemployment rate of nation. Moreover, this research essay is useful to describe the major facts and concepts related to unemployment of Australia. This essay is beneficial to conduct an effective research to portray the situation of unemployment in Australia in last five years. Moreover, this research essay develops an obvious comprehension about unemployment in order to enhance the knowledge of researchers in an effectual manner. The essay is precious to show the unemployment rate, issues, sorts, government arrangements, and so on with regards to Australia. Also, secondary data are used in this research essay to portray the major aspects of unemployment in the context of Australia. On the whole, this research essay is advantageous to provide a concise study on Unemployment in Australia in recent years. Unemployment in Australia in Last 5 Years At present times, unemployment is a serious issue and also becoming more and more serious on the regular basis. It can be considered a major economic problem to entire world. The expression unemployment focuses towards the general population of a country who are jobless. Such individuals are otherwise called 'occupation searchers' who try all their conceivable endeavors to discover fitting employments as indicated by their insight and abilities. Unemployment rate speaks to the rate of jobless individuals or the aggregate work constrain exists in the economy of a country. These individuals do their best to look for some kind of employment in a dynamic way (Richardson, 2006). Besides, the unemployment rate of a country is ascertained by partitioning the quantities of unemployed individuals with quantities of accessible workforce. The conditions of unemployment happen at what time individuals are jobless and looking for occupation. Moreover, at the season of retreat, there can be seen a n expansion in the work rate of a country. It is a direct result of it diminishes the request of work compel in the economy of a specific country. In addition, business associations make utilization of cost-cutting methodologies at the season of retreat (ABS. 2017). In this way, there can be seen an expansion in the unemployment rate of a country. Along with this, the other certainty is that the unemployment rate is vacillated. It is not consistent. It changes as per the market request and financial circumstance of a specific country. The report of ILO assigns that, in the year 2012, around six rate of the aggregate work compel of the world was without an occupation. Also, it is perceived that, the monetary state of Australia is more grounded than whatever other nation all around the globe. The GDP rate of Australia is expanding consistently. It is an indication of enhanced financial state of country. The enhanced monetary condition assumes a noteworthy part to diminish the unemployment rate of a specific country (Skattebol, Hill, Griffiths and Wong, 2015). In addition, the underneath graph is important to show the expanded GDP rate of Australia: (Source: TRADING ECONOMICS. 2017). On the premise of the above diagram, a constant increment can be expected in the yearly GDP rate of Australia. A standard increment in the GDP rate indicates the ideal financial state of the country. Additionally, good financial state of country assumes a noteworthy part to diminish the unemployment rate of that country in a strong and a critical way. In addition to this, there can be seen a diminishing in the unemployment rate of the country lately. At the end of the day, it additionally can be said that, the unemployment rate of Australia has been declined because of the enhanced economy of the country (Sriramesh and Vercic, 2009). As of late, the unemployment rate of Australia is lower than the earlier years. A diagram is offered underneath to delineate the unemployment rate of Australia in a precise way: (Source: TRADING ECONOMICS. 2017) On the premise of the above chart, plainly, the unemployment rate of Australia was 5.7% in 2016 that is lower than the earlier years. As it were, it likewise can be said that, in 2016, the unemployment rate of Australia has dropped around 5.7 percent; and the present unemployment rate is lower than the previous years (Palmer, 2017). The diminished unemployment rate indicates the most grounded employment development inside the country. In addition, as per Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS), it can be measured a bewilder increment in the business rate of Australia. Along with this, as indicated by the report of ABS, the unemployment rate of country was high in the earlier years. There can be seen a general increment in the unemployment rate of Australia. Be that as it may, it is diminishing now (Australian Bureau of Statistics. 2005). A table is offered underneath to depict the unemployment rate of country in a precise and an appropriate way: Year Unemployment Rate 2011 5.00 2012 5.20 2013 5.60 2014 6.00 2015 6.30 2016 5.80 On the premise of the information given in the above table, one might say that, the unemployment rate of Australia was high in the earlier years. The rate was 5%, 5.2%, 5.6%, 6.0%, 6.3%, and 5.8% in the year 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, and 2016 correspondingly. In this way, there can be seen a normal increment in the unemployment rate of Australia in past years. The expanded unemployment rate focuses towards the ominous financial circumstance of Australia (Gans, King, Libich, Byford, Mankiw and Stonecash, 2014). In addition, the Australian government is additionally dependable behind the expanded unemployment rate of country. It is a direct result of the legislature of country did not offer occupations to the employment searchers or unemployed individuals inside country. Along these lines, they were moving to other country looking for occupations. As an outcome, the unemployment rate of country expanded rapidly and furthermore turns into a noteworthy subject of stress to the admini stration of country. In perspective of that, the Australian government has chosen to give work to unemployment individuals of nation. Thus, in 2016, there can be seen a decrease in the unemployment rate of Australia (Ara Haque and Haque, 2008). The diminished unemployment rate is useful for the economy of country. The beneath diagram is helpful to depict the most recent unemployment rate of Australia: (Source: TRADING ECONOMICS. 2017) Moreover, truly, the unemployment rate of Australia has been lessened in the previous years. However, it doesn't imply that the issue of unemployment has been comprehended for all time. The beneath graph is useful to depict the Australian unemployment percent for the term 2003-2015. There can be seen a decrease in the unemployment percent from period 2003-2008. Also, the unemployment rate of Australia was 4.1% in March 2008 (Helpman, Itskhoki and Redding, 2010). It was the most reduced unemployment rate that has never been seen again in this century. In the above diagram, unmistakably, the unemployment rate is varied. It has expanded after 2008. In 2016, there can be seen an abatement in the Australian unemployment rate. The expanded unemployment rate of country is as yet a noteworthy subject of stress to the country. In perspective of that, the Australian government must create successful plans and in addition techniques to produce work or employments inside country. These systems would have the capacity to lessen unemployment rate and furthermore support the economy of the country in an adequate and a critical way (IndexMundi. 2016). In addition to this, there are four noteworthy sorts of unemployment. The Australian government must see every one of these sorts of unemployment and make occupations or livelihoods in like manner. Structural Unemployment: Structural unemployment is the premier sort of unemployment that may exist in the economy of a country. This kind of unemployment for the most part happens when a work showcase ends up plainly weak to give occupations to every one of the general population who are searching for employments. Alongside this, basic unemployment happens in light of the contrasts between the required aptitudes by occupation gives and abilities workers have (Richardson, 2006). Furthermore, this kind of unemployment concentrates on the auxiliary issues as well as insufficiencies that exist in the work advertise and additionally economy of a country. Cyclical Unemployment: Cyclical unemployment is the other sort of unemployment. This kind of unemployment by and large happens when there is a nonattendance of total request of work constrain in the economy of the country. In this circumstance, the administration of country can't give employments to every one of the general population who are searching for occupations. Additionally, in the repetitive unemployment, the quantity of unemployed individuals will be more than the quantity of employments accessible in the economy of a country (Sriramesh and Vercic, 2009). Frictional Unemployment: This is another kind of unemployment that for the most part happens in a country. At the point when a major distinction happens between the representatives and jobs than it can be viewed as a sort of frictional unemployment in the economy of a country. Besides, these distinctions can be connected with aptitudes, states of mind, work time, installments, area, and other main considerations connected to a business. Alongside this, frictional unemployment occurs because of disappointment among representatives with the occupations that they have done before (Ara Haque and Haque, 2008). In this circumstance, specialists try all their conceivable endeavors to inquiry employments and move starting with one occupation then onto the next employment to get full fulfillment. Seasonal Unemployment: This kind of unemployment happens because of the regular business of business firms. Tourism, development, and cultivating are the significant cases of regular business. In this sort of unemployment business firms procure work compel as per their needs and market requests. There are bunches of business firm those offer regular work to the general population who are searching for occupations. Unemployed individuals can catch openings in such kind of business (Richardson, 2006). As a result, one might say that, the above talked about are the real sorts of unemployment that ordinarily happen in the economy of a country. The administration must consider such sorts of unemployment to enhance the work level appropriately. Real Issues Related to Unemployment It is outstanding that, unemployment is a significant issue that exists in the economy of countries. In addition, the expanded unemployment rate makes various issues before countries. For case, expanded unemployment rate for the most part make social and monetary issues that are perilous for the general development of countries. The unemployment rate indicates the low salary of individuals; and low wage is an image of low usage of cash by the general population of country (Higley, Nieuwenhuysen and Neerup, 2011). Also, low utilization rate impact the economy of a country in a negative way. It is a result of the diminished utilization rate shows that individuals are unwilling to purchase their coveted items as a result of an inadequacy of cash. The lower utilization rate additionally impacts the free market activity sides of the commercial center. The fundamental explanation for it is that, individuals don't have adequate assets to buy all their coveted items and in addition administr ations. In perspective of that, the expanded unemployment rate and diminished utilization rate have negative effect on the financial development of a country (Murphy, 2013). Also, the expanded unemployment rate of country impacts the administration spending contrarily. The principle explanation for it is that, in the circumstance of high unemployment rate, the legislature can't gather charges and different charges from people in general; and along these lines the administration does not have adequate assets to spend on social welfare and foundation of a country. The expanded business rate negatively affects the way of life of individuals. It is a result of they don't have any wellspring of wage to raise their way of life appropriately (Castaeda, Serrani and Sperotti, 2012). As a result, the expanded unemployment rate makes money related, social, and financial inconveniences to the general population. These budgetary, social, and financial inconveniences are perilous to the improvement and development of countries. Moreover, there are various components that by and large produce the circumstance of unemployment in the economy of countries. For instance, enormous contrasts between the required aptitudes and abilities of individuals may make the issue of unemployment. These distinctions happen as a result of various reasons. For case, topographical contrasts, mechanical changes, word related stability, social contrasts, auxiliary changes in the economy of countries, and so forth can be viewed as real reasons of irregularity between required aptitudes and the abilities that individuals have (Seal and Penrith, 2008). As an outcome, it can accept that, unemployment a difficult issue that produces numbers issues, for example, money related, social, and financial issues in the economy of countries. These issues have various negative effects on the development, achievement and advancement of economy of countries. Government Policies to Reduce Unemployment within Nation In earlier years, the expanded unemployment rate had turned into a noteworthy subject of worry for the administration of Australia. The Australian government endeavor all its conceivable endeavors to diminish the unemployment rate inside country. As a result, there can be seen a diminishing in the unemployment rate of Australia in 2016. The Australian government is making and actualizing diverse procedures and strategies to decrease the unemployment rate that exists in the economy of country. At the end of the day, it can be accepted that, the Australian government is assuming various essential parts to gather unemployment rate and upgrade work rate in country. The Australian government is attempting every one of its endeavors to give employments to jobless individuals. It is likewise attempting to create openings for work; so the occupation searchers may land positions as indicated by their abilities and training (Milner, Morrell and LaMontagne, 2014). Along with this, the Australian government has gained huge ground in its financial approaches and work and welfare strategies in the earlier years to decrease unemployment rate in a useful way. Besides, the administration assembled steady and all around tuned macroeconomic approaches and furthermore built up an inventive climate of entrepreneurialism inside country. It grew well-working and in addition aggressive markets to produce openings for work and to give employments to the unemployed individuals. Moreover, the legislature rolled out improvements in the business game plans and work conditions also. For case, the administration created adaptable business plans and in addition conditions to underwrite efficiency at the working environment (Carvalho, 2015). With the assistance of these adaptable courses of action, jobless individuals wind up noticeably ready to land positions as per their inclinations. Like this, it can be expected that, these more adaptable game plans diminished the unemployment rate inside country. It is a result of with the assistance of these plans and conditions, more unemployed individuals wind up plainly ready to get legitimate work themselves. Moreover, doubtlessly, unemployment is for the most part dangerous for youths. It is a result of long haul unemployment consumes confidence of individuals. By considering these certainties, the Australian government embraced and executes coalition arrangement to empower work inside country. For case, with the assistance of this coalition arrangement, the administration will give a vocation responsibility reward installment to the general population who are unemployed and trying endeavors to discover reasonable employments. Furthermore, with the assistance of these rewards, adolescents would be inspired and bother free also. As indicated by the Australian government, the coalition approach will be useful to improve workforce interest and in addition profitability. It is a direct result of this strategy is putting forth motivators to those individuals who are finding and keeping a vocation for quite a while period (Kearns, 2013). Like this, the coalition arrangement created by the admi nistration diminishes the unemployment rate; as well as lifts the confidence of adolescents also. The coalition approach will likewise be valuable to start new measures to help jobseekers with employments, to grow workforce cooperation and to enhance profitability in an efficacious and a more thorough way. In addition to this, the Australian government built up various powerful approaches to raise the cooperation of work compel into empty occupations. For case, the acquaintance of the welfare with work bundle is a noteworthy case of such sorts of arrangements. These arrangements assume a noteworthy part to diminishing reliance on the welfare and augment motivations to enter the workforce into occupations. Moreover, the Australian government and RBA (Reserve Bank of Australia) diminished the loan fees to enhance the business level and wages of representatives inside country. It is outstanding that high unemployment rate decreases the wages of representatives. The RBA has chosen to lessen financing costs to raise work and wages inside country (Milner, Morrell and LaMontagne, 2014). Like this, one might say that, the Australian government is attempting its best to decrease unemployment rate and make occupations keeping in mind the end goal to enhance the economy of the country. Conclusion On the preface of the above examination, unemployment is a serious issue that is creating troubles for the economy of nation. The problem of unemployment is being serious day by day. Along with this, it can be inferred that, Australia is confronting the issue of unemployment nonstop after the year 2008. After the financial crisis of 2007-208, the unemployment has become a serious issue to all over the world. The unemployment rate of the Australia has expanded over the most recent five years. But, there can be seen a lessening in the unemployment rate in the year 2016 and 2017. Moreover, it is also observed that, the government of nation is very serious towards the issue of unemployment inside country. As a consequence, the Australian government is creating powerful plans, arrangements and methodologies to lessen the unemployment rate within nation. The government is serious for the positive economic growth and development of the nation. The improved economy is essential for the overa ll growth and development of nation. Due to the efforts of the Australian government, the unemployment rate has decreased in the previous year. The decreased unemployment rate indicates towards the economic growth of nation in recent years. References ABS. (2017). Labour Force, Australia. Available At: [Accessed On: 23rd May 2017] Ara Haque, R. and Haque, M.O. (2008). Gender, Ethnicity and Employment: Non-English Speaking Background Migrant Women in Australia. USA: Springer Science Business Media. Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2005). Year Book Australia: 2006, Issue 88. Australia: Aust. Bureau of Statistics. Carvalho, P. (2015). Youth unemployment in Australia. Policy: A Journal of Public Policy and Ideas, 31(4), p.36. Castaeda, A.S., Serrani, L. and Sperotti, F. (2012). Youth Unemployment and Joblessness: Causes, Consequences, Responses. Australia: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. Gans, J., King, S., Libich, J., Byford, M., Mankiw, G. and Stonecash, R. (2014). Principles of Economics PDF. Australia: Cengage Learning Australia. Helpman, E., Itskhoki, O. and Redding, S. (2010). Inequality and unemployment in a global economy. Econometrica, 78(4), pp. 1239-1283. Higley, J., Nieuwenhuysen, J.P. and Neerup, S. (2011). Immigration and the Financial Crisis: The United States and Australia Compared. USA: Edward Elgar Publishing. IndexMundi. (2016). Australia Unemployment rate. Available At: [Accessed On: 23rd May 2017] Kearns, K. (2013). The Big Picture PDF. Australia: Cengage Learning Australia. Milner, A., Morrell, S. and LaMontagne, A.D. (2014). Economically inactive, unemployed and employed suicides in Australia by age and sex over a 10-year period: what was the impact of the 2007 economic recession? International journal of epidemiology, p.dyu148. Murphy, P.J. (2013). A Decent Provision: Australian Welfare Policy, 1870 to 1949. Australia: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.. Palmer, D. (2017). Unemployment rate steady at 5.9pc in March as 60,000 jobs gained. Available At: [Accessed On: 23rd May 2017] Richardson, S. (2006). Unemployment in Australia. Available At: [Accessed On: 23rd May 2017] Seal, J.M., and Penrith, D. (2008). Live Work in Australia. Australia: Crimson Publishing. Skattebol, J., Hill, T., Griffiths, A. and Wong, M. (2015). Unpacking Youth Unemployment. Research Report 15, Social Policy Research Centre, UNSW, Sydney. Sriramesh, K. and Vercic, D. (2009). The Global Public Relations Handbook, Revised and Expanded Edition: Theory, Research, and Practice. NY: Routledge. TRADING ECONOMICS. (2017). Australia GDP Annual Growth Rate. Available At: [Accessed On: 23rd May 2017] TRADING ECONOMICS. (2017). Australia Unemployment Rate. Available At: [Accessed On: 23rd May 2017

Thursday, November 28, 2019

International Marketing Essays - Economy, Marketing, Business

International Marketing International Marketing A firm's international marketing program must generally be modified and adapted to foreign markets. This international marketing program uses strategies to accomplish its marketing goals. Within each foreign nation, the firm is likely to find a combination of marketing environment and target markets that are different from those of its own home country and other foreign countries. It is important that in international marketing, product, pricing, distribution and promotional strategies be adapted accordingly. In order for an international firm to function properly, cultural, social, economic, and legal forces within the country must be clearly understood. The task of International marketing is more difficult and risky than expected by many firms. One of the most controlling factors of international marketing is management. It is very important for managers to recognize the differences as well as similarities in buyer behavior. Many mistakes can occur if managers fail to realize that buyers differ from country to country. It is the international differences in buyer behavior, rather than similarities, which cause problems in successful international marketing. An international marketing manager is a manager responsible for facilitating the exchange of products between the organization and its customers or clients. Sometimes an international marketing manager will find difficulties in completing the exchange of products. Many surprises in international business are undesirable human mistakes. An international corporation must fully understand the foreign environment before pursuing business matters. Problems constantly crop up and many times have unexpected results. Sometimes these unexpected results are unavoidable. Other times they are avoidable. To be sure those avoidable situations do not occur, international marketing managers must be aware of cultural differences. Cultural differences take place among most nations of the world. Differences in culture are one of the most significant factors in an international company. All nationalities posses unique characteristics, which are unknown to many foreigners. Many of the top international businesses are unaware of these cultural differences. It is very important to understand these cultures in order to market a product successfully. As an example, different nationalities have different beliefs on how business matters should take place. Where some countries prefer to work with a deadline other countries can take this as being offensive. Many countries feel it is an insult to be asked to work under a set time period. A country may feel that a deadline is threatening and may feel backed into a corner. On the other hand, other countries try to expedite matters by setting deadlines. To be effective in a foreign market it is necessary to understand the local customs. Knowing what to do in a foreign country is as important as knowing what not to do. Failure to understand local customs can lead to serious misunderstandings between business people. The simple rejection of a cup of coffee can lead to total confusion. The decline of an invite is sometimes considered an affront. To avoid making blunders, a person must be able to discern the difference between what is acceptable behavior and what is not acceptable behavior. Violations of a local custom can be insulting, and can cause uncomfortable situations. To be a successful manager of international marketing, one must be able to discern the differences as to what must and must not be done. It is almost impossible to attain complete knowledge and understanding of a foreign culture. As established, culture plays an important role in the drama of international marketing. Of all the cultural aspects, communication may be the most critical. It is certain that communication has been involved in a number of cultural confusion. Good communication linkages must be set between a company and its customers, suppliers, its employees, and the governments of the countries where it performs business activities. Poor communication can obviously cause various difficulties. One source of difficulty among starting companies is that of effective communication with potential buyers. The problem is that there are many possible communication barriers. Sometimes messages can be translated incorrectly, regulations overlooked, and economic differences can be ignored. Other times when the message does arrive, its ineffectiveness can cause it to be of no value. Every now and then a buyer will receive the message, but to the companies disappointment, the message was sent incorrect. It is normal in multinational businesses to send and receive messages on a regular basis. Many well-known people have incapacitated public speech introductions by using inaccurate titles and names. Not all communication problems are verbal. Some serious problems have occurred as a result of non-verbal communication. Non-verbal communication exist in numerous forms. Sometimes a person's appearance can convey a stronger message than intended. Untidy attire, for example, can be more offensive in some nations

Sunday, November 24, 2019

Homeless, Struggling Veterans. Professor Ramos Blog

Homeless, Struggling Veterans. Seth Ochs English 101 14 April 2019 In the great United States of America, Veterans serve our country risking their lives to protect not only us, but the freedoms that are cherished by many every single day. For decades, we the people have remained bystanders, watching our Veterans return home from deployment and/or wars and struggle to find jobs, shelter to live in, and even food. According to, †On a single night in January 2018, just over 37,800 Veterans were experiencing homelessness. On the same night, just over 23,300 of the Veterans counted were unsheltered or living on the street.†( As Americans, it is our duty to find a solution to this issue and assure that no member of the military falls through the cracks and is forgotten. A little background on our homeless, struggling veterans to keep in mind is that according to The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) ,†The nation’s homeless veterans are predominantly male, with roughly 9% being female.†( This is primarily because the first women were not allowed to serve in the military until 1948 working as nurses, technicians, officers and more.( Up until around 1976, women were admitted into the first service academy for combat preparation.( With this being said, there may have been less women actually in the service at the time, but that does not affect the statistics in regards to homeless female veterans. â€Å"Immunity to homelessness does not exist for any subset of the veteran population. Homelessness does not discriminate against gender or race, though it is worth noting that women veterans are an exceptionally vulnerable portion of this population. Women veterans are at an increased risk of homelessness (2.4 percent), when compared to their male veteran counterparts (1.4 percent). This is in part due to their increased risk of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), loss of employment, dissolution of marriages, and feelings of having a lack of gender-specific support. These increased risks may all be amplified if the veteran does not self-identify as a veteran –– meaning they may be less likely to be offered or seek veterans benefits. It is also important to note that 21 percent of homeless women veterans have dependent children, which often times may add to the anxiety and importance of finding permanent housing. In the VFW’s survey of women veterans, 46 percent of women veterans who were homeless or at risk of becoming homeless were currently living in another person’s home, of that 46 percent, 71 percent have children.†( Due to such hardships, it is crucial that we discover a solutio n in which will benefit not only all of our veterans, but our female soldiers and single moms from the service. Through research, I have found multiple efforts and ideas to prevent and solve the issue of homeless veterans within the United States. The United States Interagency Council on Homelessness has provided a list of ten strategies. If we can,â€Å"Get State and Local Leaders to Publicly Commit to and Coordinate Efforts on Ending Veteran Homelessness.†(USICH) we will be able to have more people involved in putting and end to homeless veterans because there would be better advertising of the issue, as well as having political figures support the movement with funding and resources. By trying to,† Implement a Housing First System Orientation and Response.†(USICH) we will be able to help provide semi-permanent shelter to those that reach out to the program resulting in more women and children becoming successful and having a better opportunity to exit poverty and create a better way of life. For this system to run smoother and be more successful, we need to,† Implement a Coordinated Entry System.†(USICH) allowing for ease of application and plenty of resources. Another great way to help advance the idea and stay on track is to,† Set and Meet Ambitious Short and Long-Term Goals by Deploying All Resources Effectively.†(USICH). For those that are unable to apply for the housing first system, we need to,† Improve Transitional Housing Performance and Consider Adopting Different Models and/or Converting or Reallocating Resources Into Supportive Housing.†(USICH). By doing this, it will help get more veterans living in areas of poverty or high expense in to greater living conditions and a place that may be more affordable long term. To help begin the process of creating facilities with semi or permanent housing, we need to,† Engage and Support Private Landlords as Partners,† as well as,† Identify and Be Accountable to all Veterans Experiencing Homelessness.†(USICH). For those that are unable to apply for housing and do not know where to go, we can,†Conduct Coordinated Outreach and Engagement Efforts,† which can help lead to an,† Increased Connections to Employment.†(USICH). And for those who are homeless to legal mistakes, poor credit, debts, etc. we ca n,â€Å" Coordinate With Legal Services Organizations To Solve Legal Needs.†( With some of these ideas being more difficult to accomplish that others, joining together can help us get our veterans off of the streets. One problem that may occur during our mission to better the lives of struggling for Veterans, is the want to do better for themselves. For some, the problem may be not wanting to feel vulnerable, dealing with mental illness and refusing assistance , or possibly alcohol and drug addiction. Regardless of what services may be offered the homeless seem to refuse shelter and prefer to remain in the streets overnight. From first hand experience, when people are homeless they cling to the objects and belongings that they have and do what they can to keep their belongings. By staying the night in a shelter, they are typically unable to bring what they have inside the facility with them and others will steal their things overnight. From research that I have done, we as the people of the states can fix the problem of homeless veterans in America and can better the lives of the women and the upcoming generations of children suffering. â€Å"Demographics of the U.S. Military.† Council on Foreign Relations, Council on Foreign Relations, Coalition for Homeless Veterans, Office of Mental Health. â€Å"Homeless Veterans.† Go to, 8 Mar. 2012, â€Å"Addressing Veteran Homelessness: Current Position; Future Course.† The Official Seal of the Veterans of Foreign Wars of the U.S.,

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Based on the IBM Social Computing guidelines, create a social Essay

Based on the IBM Social Computing guidelines, create a social computing guidelines blog for your company - Essay Example Hence, Heavy Machine Enterprise Co. must make it mandatory that each staff member participates in such interaction and exchange of ideas, on global basis. Being an innovation based company, Heavy Machine Enterprise Co. must stress that each employee participates in the continuous learning process. Accoringly, the company should emphasize that social computing can contribute largely towards the growth of an individual and organization. Another important aspect of IBM computing guidelines deals with the tool of contribution, among the staff and all concerned, worldwide. IBM has the vision of contributing to the world as an innovator and corporate citizen, with a view to provide government and non-governmental organizations, health care industry and businesses, the necessary innovations by sharing the knowledge with all concerned. Acknowledging the importance of social computing, Heavy Machine Enterprise Co. must recommend to its employees using internet, which has been the policy of IBM since 1997. Therefore, Heavy Machine Enterprise Co. should encourage all staff members to participate actively in the blogosphere for learning and sharing their knowledge. The staff member is responsible for any document published by him or her. The company should stress the importance of on-line content, which everyone must use in a responsible manner, while respecting rules of the particular website and protecting the privacy of publisher. In addition, any staff member of Heavy Machine Enterprise Co. can declare his or her role in the company while publishing any content or discussing company related products and services. However, any published material shall be the personal responsibility of the individual. While respecting copyright laws of the land, no staff member can disclose any propriety information. Similarly, discussing the business plans and other related

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Accounting for Leases and Accounting for Provisions Assignment

Accounting for Leases and Accounting for Provisions - Assignment Example The present value is arrived at after discounting the lease payments based on the interest rate that is associated with the lease payments. Similarly, in the lessee books of accounting the periodic lease payments should be apportioned between the reduction of the current liability and the finance charges. This is done so as to reduce the amount of interest that is paid by the lessee on the regular lease payments. Another significant aspects that lessee should consider is the depreciation of the assets leased. According to IAS-17, the depreciation of property held under lease should be similar to those assets that are owned. However, if it is uncertain that the lessee will own the property, the life of the property or the lease term whichever is lower is considered during the depreciation (Carpenter et al, 1994). One of the key aspects that characterize a lease is that the lessee purchases an asset from a lessor. However, instead of paying cash, it is deemed that the purchase is financed with a loan that is given by the lessor. In this regard, the lessees are supposed to include the loan interest on the lease payments thus decreasing the lease liability. This is computed as follows. Yearly lease payments-Interest expense (initial lease liability * interest rate) =Reduction of the lease liability (Dirsmith and Haskins, 1991). After computation of the lease liability, the lessee makes a journal entry as follows. Dr Interest Expense Account with the amount of interest expense calculated above Dr Lease Liability Account the difference Cr Cash Account amount paid Computing the value of the leased property It is imperative for lessees to determine the value of the asset that will be recorded in their books of account. This entails the amount of cash that the lessee would have paid in case he or she purchased the asset in cash. This is the current value of the minimum lease payments (MLP). To arrive at the minimum lease payments, two major interest rates are considered that include market rate and implicit rate whichever is lower. Part (a) (ii) Problems relating to the recognition and classification of leases in corporate financial statements Classification and recognition of leases in corporate financial statements is a major challenge that is faced by many organizations. This is based on the fact that different forms of leases are differently treated in the financial statements. One of the major problems is whether or not the rewards and risks associated with leases remain with the owners. Key rewards include capital gain as well as the right to sell property (Emby and Gibbins, 1988). On the other hand, risks involved are variations in the amount of returns, loss from idle assets in addition to obsolescence of the technology that is transferred from the lessor to the lessee. Transfer of rewards and risks to lessee The amount of risks and rewards that is transferred to the users is a major challenge that faces the accountants during the accounting treatments of leases. In this regard, it is fundamental for companies to highly recognize the concepts of the agreement between the lessors and the lessee even though the legal form of the agreement is vital. For example, a financial lease encompasses the transfer of all benefits and risks to the lessee (Gibbins and Mason, 1998). If there is no such transfer, then this becomes an operating lease. Similarly, the legal form of a lease may indicate that a company is exposed to few benefits and risks from the property leased but the substance condition of the agreement may indicate a very different scenario. This leaves the accountant with a major responsibility of

Monday, November 18, 2019

Chemical castration and pedophiles Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Chemical castration and pedophiles - Essay Example While many times the law enforcement agencies and the justice system have been in support of chemical castration in dealing with paedophiles, human rights activities have come up strongly to oppose the method, with claims that it amounts to a gross violation of the universal human rights. It is, however, emergent that the act does not violate human rights as is echoed by many proponents (Meiesenkothen, 1). These human rights are spelt out in both the constitutions of respective countries and the United Nations. This paper shall be focused on why chemical castration is a necessary measure in dealing with the matter of paedophilia. Thus this paper shall be written on the basis of the thesis statement that reads thus: While some people bear the claim that chemical castration amounts to a violation of human rights, chemical castration can serve as an effective measure in the rehabilitation of paedophiles, especially paraphilia, by mitigating to a significant level the sexual urges of off enders and in the same sense avoiding more instances of sexual abuse (Fond, 18). The employment of chemical translation can be traced back to 1944. Back then, a chemical called the diethylstilbestrol was used to manipulate the hormonal reactions of sexual offenders by lowering their levels of testosterone. The trend has continued to be widely debated all over the world, with debates being held all over the world by legislators and governments so as to explore the possibilities of employing chemical castration in punishment of sexual violence perpetrators. Paedophilia is a major problem for many countries. Paedophilia is a case where an adult involves a child under the age of maturity in sexual activities. In some cases, this kind of an offence is seen as a medical condition of a psychological nature. In most cases of paedophilia, the courts instruct that the suspect undertakes an examination to determine the status of their mental health. In law, it has become

Friday, November 15, 2019

Applications of Mathematics in Real Life

Applications of Mathematics in Real Life Applications of Mathematics in Real Life Situations 1.0 Application of Matrices Matrix concepts can be applied in various fields such as: Quantum Mechanics 3D Games Animations Cryptography and Others. We shall analyze the last one which is Encryption in further details. Encryption is indeed an important measure of security when there are transactions of data between parties. Firstly, we shall make use of the AB = X and B = A-1X concept, where the matrix A is the Encoder and the inverse of A is the Decoder. As messages are mainly sent in letters, we have a set a relationship between letters from the message and numbers in our matrix. For our example we will take the following relationship. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Space 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 1 0 Now let’s encode our message which is â€Å"BAD†. Referring to our relationship table, it becomes â€Å"3, 2, 5†. We decide for a coding matrix A, which can be 5 2 4 6 1 0 2 7 2 As it is a 3*3 matrix, we can encode 3 numbers at a time. Encrypting the first 3 numbers, 10, 0, 13 (Matrix B) using matrix multiplications: 5 2 4 3 39 6 1 0 2 = 20 2 7 2 5 30 39, 20, 30 becomes the Encrypted Message which should be decoded now using inverse of matrix A. Inverse of A = 1/73 12/73 -2/73 39 3 -6/73 1/73 12/73 20 = 2 20/73 -31/146 -7/146 30 5 Decoding the message gives us back 3, 2, 5 which can be referred back to the relationship table to get the message sent. Note: For this example We need to have a matrix A which does have an inverse, we need to cater for the blank – space hence we can allocate a â€Å"0† for it The coding matrix as well as the number letter relationship is independent that is for some other encryption A can be 3 while B is 4 and so on. Conclusion: Matrices do play a major role in not only Encryption of Messages to avoid misuse of data, but in other fields mentioned above as well. 2.0 Application of Statistics â€Å"We live in the Information Age†¦Ã¢â‚¬  is a common saying in today’s world. It is a true fact as in our era as we make use of information in every field to be able to get an idea of what is actually happening and what we can do to not only to reduce problems of the past but devise ways and techniques for much proper less time consuming, less complicated, less costly and more beneficial processes to obtain output Statistics are the ways we can achieve the above by manipulating the data in their own ways to obtain a set of conclusions which will help us take many crucial decisions. We can also agree to the fact that indeed statistics are being used in many vast and important fields which will be illustrated below: Weather Forecast/Emergencies Precautions We make use of statistics to a very great extent in weather forecasting. This is so as almost every forecasting is based on data and information gathered from previous ones and in addition with other related data. For example: In reference to the amount of rainfall or cyclones obtained from previous years, we can have a close overview for the current year and hence take necessary precautions Medical Studies/Prediction of Diseases/Genetics Statistics have a huge role in medical fields nowadays. By referring to data and information on other past patients, we can learn more and extract new remedies and treatment not only to make the medical field prospect but help needy peoples. Also, using genetic data, some parents might come to know well before the coming problems with their expected children hence can prevent the possible problems accordingly. For example: Using information recorded from past patients suffering from a particular disease in a particular season, expected patients with the same disease can be protected using vaccinations well before. Politics To achieve a well organized political structure for the country’s well being, the potential people needs to be elected and based on their contribution, their work and their reputation on previous data, the obtain their chances to be candidates in next elections. Consumer Goods/Stock Market/Quality Testing Many wholesalers, retailers and even small scaled businessmen nowadays do keep tracks of both their purchases and sales which constantly being referred to be able to extract many important conclusions for better decision making and productivity. For example: If a certain commodity’s sales rises during a particular festive season, the businessman will know from statistics that he should have the item in stock for his own profit. In addition, it is crucial acknowledge what is happening in the economy of the country, hence statistics is a blessing here also as it gives us feedback and predictions for the future. Companies too use statistics to test whether their products are as per their customer’s wants and needs. To do so, they make use of product batches and hence it is time consuming for them to check for all the products. Conclusion: In the light of the above, we have seen that statistics are merely predictions; hence we cannot rely completely on statistics. However, they allow us to have better overviews of what is expected and hence we prepare accordingly to eliminate errors and mistakes. 3.0 Application of Regression and Correlation Regression and Correlation is used with sets of data, most commonly 2 sets of data to conclude about one main point, the relationship between the data. Regression deals mainly with the graphs of best fits for the data to be able to obtain the Correlation between them. Example: The Correlation: Positive Linear Correlation The study also includes the Correlation degree or measure namely the Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient, which lies between -1 and 1. Regression and Correlation is used in everyday life in various situations namely: In Businesses Firstly, to compare the previous sale figures such as to have better understandings for future sales. Moreover, companies are able to see how the varied prices on commodities have an effect on sales and clients requirements. Also, also the regression predictions will allow the companies to eliminate future problems and risk hence obtaining better business models with proper decision makings. In Regression Testing As defined by the Internet, Regression Testing is to verify that modified code does not break the existing functionality of the application and works within the requirements of the system. Therefore, it is a much easier and quicker way to find mistakes in systems to be able to implement new designed and modified ones. In Medical Fields According to Paul I. M. Schmitz (1970-1986), in the biomedical field, data in binary form such as disease/no disease or survival/death are very common. In these applications a multivariate normal distribution for the x-variables in both the disease group and the non-disease group was assumed. In pregnancy cases, the IQ of the unborn child is mainly based on predictions from regressions. Hence it is clear that regression played an important part in medical fields. In Education / Candidates Selection / World War Many institutions such as Harvard use regression models to be able to select the students that are eligible. Students also turn to counselors which uses the same techniques to predict the best school for the latter. For selecting best candidates for employment, companies do make use of regression methods. In the same way, during world wars, regression made it simple to pick the most capable soldiers to increase their winning chances. Conclusion: Like Statistics, Regression is of great importance when it comes to have predictions for the future to be able to make better decisions. 4.0 References Matrix Encryption [Online] Available from [Accessed: 26th 29th November 2014]. Maths Worksheet Center [Online] Available from [Accessed: 30th November 3rd December 2014] What Are Some Ways Linear Regression Can Be Applied in Business Settings? [Online] Available from [Accessed: 26th 05th November 2014]. Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation Coefficient [Online] Available from [Accessed: 5th November 2014]. Numbers Numerical Methods For Bioscience Students [Online] Available from [Accessed: 7th December 2014] Testing Basic Interview Questions [Online] Available from [Accessed: 7th December 2014] Regression Models [Online] Available from [Accessed: 7th December 2014] Paul I. M. Schmitz. (1970-1986) Developments In Logistic Regression Methodology. 1.p.2.1 [Online] Available from file:///C:/Users/User/Downloads/860423_SCHMITZ,%20Paulus%20Ignatius%20Maria.pdf [Accessed: 7th December 2014]

Wednesday, November 13, 2019

Sexual Harassment of Teens In The Workplace Essay -- Sexual Harassment

For millions of teenagers working in the American workforce, being sexually harassed is not an uncommon occurrence in their daily work environment. Unfortunately, teenagers in the workforce become particularly vulnerable to acts of harassment because they lack awareness about their rights as an employee and do not have enough work experience or maturity to address situations that arise in the work environment. These teenagers are usually part-time workers, overlooked for training, view their supervisors as having the ultimate authority over their job, and are more likely to be unaware of harassment policies than other workers within the workforce. Despite all of these factors, more and more organizations in industries like retail (i.e. Kmart), entertainment (i.e. movie theatres), and food services (i.e. McDonalds) to be specific, have turned to teenagers as a key source of labor. In doing so, these organizations have exposed themselves to the liability of protecting the youth tha t they employ and must take even greater measures to prevent these teenagers from being subjected to a hostile work environment. Where these organizations fail to protect the youth that they employ, the federal (and State) government, by way of passing labor laws and through the administration of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), attempts to ensure that teens are fairly educated and represented if such a hostile work environment occurs. It is through the EEOC’s guardianship that the government has recognized as well as acknowledged a need to protect teenagers from harassment in the workplace and have more recently been active in taking action against organizations that fail to do so. Despite these efforts, an increasing number of... ...nd successfully prove harassment in the workplace. Larger increases in punitive and compensatory damages are becoming more common as awards by juries in cases involving working teenagers. Despite these legal protections, there is still more that needs to be done in order to ensure that employed teenagers are being protected in the workplace from harassment. Employers must recognize their neglect of teenagers within the workforce in order to become more conscious about the hostile work environments that they may be creating or promoting for the teens that they employ. With the establishment of initiatives by the EEOC to educate these teens about their rights as employees and providing assistance to employers through the creation of specific harassment prevention guidelines, it is likely that the work environment for teens in the future will change for the better.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Cost Benefit Analysis Essay

Abstract The City of Sanford initiated work on their Parks and Grounds City Project in 2004 with the development of Phase I of said project in an effort to create and build a better community for city residents. In doing so, they have been privy to obtaining various grants and funding that allowed them to extend the focus on the project to the Riverwalk and Seawall, while extending the phases of the Program to Street Revitalization, the Riverwalk Gateway, the Marketplace at Seminole Towne Center, and soon the Orlando Sanford International Airport. This document will note the cost-benefit analysis that took place in the development of the project. It will also state how such analysis is used for making decisions regarding public expenditures, the role the economic theory played in conducting research for this particular project as well as the influence of economic theory on the cost benefit analysis for this project. Public Finance Proposal Part I: Cost Benefit Analysis The consideration of costs and benefits in the evaluation of an upcoming city project is a rather logical process. In fact, it is important for city managers to take into account the project costs and benefits prior to implementation of said project. The process of developing the project idea is essential and thus consideration for the best course of action becomes essential to the process. Once these measures have been weighed out it is critical to compare the costs associated with implementing the courses of action addressed in the development phase. Decision-Making through Analysis Through the use of Cost Benefit Analysis, the City of Sanford City Management and board of county commissioners addressed the costs and benefits to the project at a time when the economy was starting to take a downturn. It was therefore critical to evaluate the project thoroughly and determine the feasibility of the costs to the city budget. Though cost benefit analysis probably could be best used in making quick and simple financial decisions (Mind Tools, 2012), one certainly can take away from this process the brainstorming involved in the initial decision making. Surely the city managers involved in the development of the city of Sanford Riverwalk Project addressed the needs of the community prior to development of the project. In fact, knowing the city’s history is critical in understanding the Department of Parks and Recreations focus on implementing such a plan. The City of Sanford’s focus on economic growth and the revitalization of the historic riverfront for which it is best known for is just one example of its efforts. Sanford’s focus on community development is clearly shown in its commitment to leisure activities designed to enhanced city resident’s quality of life. Although the city is known for its charming and traditional 19th century downtown area, it is also becoming more available to adjoining communities through its vibrant and fast paced interstate corridor. This corridor is best known to travelers from out of town by way of the Orlando Sanford International Airport as well as through the surrounding interstate (Metro Orlando Economic Development Commission, 2009). It is clear that city managers focused on the development of the city in implementing the projects that would not only enhance the quality of life of residents, but also with the economic activity would also help improve the city through recognition by also providing advantages. In this case the benefits of implementing the city projects far outweighed the cost, and showed to be feasible enough to implement through use of federal grants such as the Community Development Block Grants and through partnerships with County Government in providing effective packages for such projects as these. The Role of Economic Theory Economic theory is an essential part in economic research, and even more so when discussing the development of city projects. The idea that the implementation of policies in budgetary issues would improve people’s lives is attractive to budget administrators and city administrators alike (Varian, 1989). In fact, it is most useful for evaluating the answers to common problems faced by local organizations. The determining factor is based on the approach taken to evaluate the effectiveness of the project. The use of Cost Benefit Analysis in City Projects , such as the Sanford Riverwalk, provides strategic analysis and planning of the recreational incentives for city residents. The city is based around surrounding popular cities known for their parks and recreation. The City of Altamonte Springs, Daytona Beach, and the City of Orlando are known for their state parks and touristic areas. Because the development of such a project would contribute to a competitive market and enhance the face value of the city, it is part of the overall analysis of the research conducted on this particular project. Influence of Economic Theory Economic theory was certainly influential in cost benefit analysis of this project. After all, in considering the allocation of resources and funds to be contributed to this particular project it is important to consider how the implementation of policies and use of budgetary items contribute to the enhancement of daily living. In addressing economic developments for the city it is critical to permit processes of analysis and improvements that provide a service to the development of the community and provide the ability to meet the Department representatives to discuss site specific development issues (City of Sanford Government, 2011). Reports generated over the years confirm the economic impact generated in the city in this past year to reflect over $15 million (City of Sanford Government, 2011), thus another example of the economic influence to the city’s development of said project. In the long run, the use of cost benefit analysis in development of community projects is a relatively easy tool that can be used to decide if a change is necessary in the community. Consideration of economic theory and the influence of that theory on the analysis of project development is essential in determining if the project will be effective and feasible for the local government. References City of Sanford Government. (2011). City Manager’s 2012 Annual Report . Sanford: City of Sanford. Metro Orlando Economic Development Commission. (2009). Sanford Stats. Orlando : Metro Orlando Economic Development Commission. Mind Tools. (2012, December 10). Retrieved from Mind Tools: Varian, H. R. (1989). What use is Economic Theory? University of California at Berkeley.

Friday, November 8, 2019

Freedom and the role of civilization

Freedom and the role of civilization Introduction The concept of freedom represents a kind of a notion that bears similarity to different philosophers’ opinions about an important object that grants people happiness, wealth, and longevity. In its different interpretations, freedom has the characteristics that depict it as an ultimate goal of all investigations that scientists and philosophers would like to perform.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Freedom and the role of civilization specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In order to comprehend the concept of freedom from the sociological perspective, it becomes very important to resort to the highly authoritative points of view such as Marx and Freud’s. These two great writers, philosophers, and sociologists attempted to describe the idea of freedom and its importance to society people live in. For instance, Freud admits that people get used to socialize themselves by means of their determining factors’ recognition and investigations of the ideas which motivate people and make them take certain steps in this life. This is why his ideas and works have a close connection to freedom by means of knowledge that people may gain within some period of time and the emotional challenges that may become as serious obstacles to the way of cognition. As for Marx and Engels’ interpretation of freedom, they believe that freedom lies in the relations between people and the ways of how these people behave in society. In other words, Freud’s isolation and Marx’s communication represent the two different sides of one particular issue, freedom. The achievements demonstrated by Marx and Freud play a significant role in the field of sociology and philosophy indeed; Marx believed in the power of labor and recognized the individual as an integral part of society and Freud, in his turn, tried to prove that people should pay attention to their behavior and thoughts by me ans of knowledge; such different approaches for the concept of freedom may serve as a powerful opportunity that promotes recognition of how people care about freedom and how society accept this freedom. Discussion Basics about freedom and the impact of civilization. The vast majority of people still believe that they have freedom in all aspects of their lives and have the right to choose what to do, wear, say, write, etc. According to the general assumptions and believes, each individual has freedom from his/her birth in case this individual does not break the norms and rules sets. However, certain limitations already appear when we mention the existence of rules and norms. These rules and norms bind human freedom in some way so that people cannot even guess that dependence on their own ideas exists. To comprehend the essence of freedom, many philosophers and writers developed their ideas, share their suggestions, and analyze what could make a person free and, at the same time, sati sfy the demands of society and civilization itself.Advertising Looking for essay on philosophy? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The ideas of Karl Marx and Sigmund Freud provide people with an opportunity to evaluate the concept of freedom and its power in regards to the conditions people live under. Both Marx and Freud’s works deserve certain attention and recognition because their opposite arguments help to create one general picture of how freedom influences human live and interferes the relations between the individual and society. The famous psychoanalysis by Sigmund Freud and not less famous political economy by Karl Marx create powerful and clear grounds for people to continue developing the idea of freedom and the relations which happen between a person and society he/she lives in. â€Å"The urge for freedom, therefore, is directed against particular forms and demands of civilization or against civiliz ation altogether† (Freud 41). This idea shows how Freud defines freedom in terms of the conditions given: he does believe that freedom depends on society and the process of civilization; however, he does not want to believe that civilization can influence human freedom and individuality. He demonstrates the respect to personal knowledge and human abilities to study and grasp the essence, and what he tries to do is to help people comprehend the necessity to become more powerful and freer. Marx, in his turn, underlines that â€Å"the worker is related to the product of his labour as to an alien object† (Marx and Engels 72) so that he unites the idea of freedom and labor into one whole that people cannot divide. Freud about freedom and the role of civilization. Sigmund Freud introduced one of the most powerful and captivating ways of how people could improve their lives and get a clear picture of what they would like to get and could get. His achievements in psychology and the concept of psychoanalysis deserve attention because of several reasons: (1) it helps to change the way people get used to think; (2) it promotes the improvement in language and culture people prefer to use and rely one; and finally, (3) it focuses on all those unconscious drives which influence human activities and demands. To clear up what Freud implied under the concept of freedom and its impact on society, many people try to make use of his Civilization and Its Discontents. This book appeared at the beginning of the 20th century. In this work, Freud describes the peculiarities of those tensions that existed between civilization and the individual.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Freedom and the role of civilization specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More One of the first tension, Freud introduced, implied the fact that people strove for freedom all the time (they want to become free and take the actions in accordan ce with their interests and demands) and civilization had a need of conformity and the line of constant repressions. Even if Freud found enough powerful reasons of why civilization developed restrictions and promoted obedience, he could agree with the fact that people needed to follow rules and be limited in actions. For example, Freud uses the idea of freedom as something pure and constant: people can do what they want and when they want. However, civilization makes it possible to create some rules and norms according to which people have to use their freedom and choices. Freedom of thoughts and actions undergo considerable restrictions such as cruel punishment in case one person takes the life of another person, in other words, murder and possible outcomes. According to Freud, people cannot even imagine how the dependence on some outside factors develops: â€Å"there is nothing of which we are more certain than the feeling of our self, of our own ego. This ego appears to us as so mething autonomous and unitary, marked off distinctly from everything else† (Freud 12). Personal ego creates the feeling that maintains certain and sharp lines of human inherent demarcation. As a rule, the process of sublimation promotes human blindness as for personal dependence on norms set. In general, Freud defines the individual as an anti-social being, and society (civilization) has to domesticate this being in order to achieve certain satisfaction, pleasure, and understanding on the biological level at first. â€Å"It is impossible to overlook the extent to which civilization is built up upon a renunciation of instinct†¦ It is not easy to understand how it can become possible to deprive an instinct of satisfaction† (Freud 42-43). The use of drives makes it possible for the individual to grasp the basics of civilized behavior by means of sublimation and all those suppressed drives that become striving for this person. So, as a result of this suppression, the relations between the individual and society change: even if the person thinks he/she rests the same with the same demands which society has already imposed, his natural (biological) drives become social (suppressed) ones. Marx and Engels about restrictions placed by civilization. The ideas Marx and Engels presented in their work Capital also played an important role in understanding of the concept of freedom and its relation to the individual and society. In comparison to Freud, Marx believed that freedom should take place in society when people began communicating and achieving some common goals together. In the third chapter, the authors properly underline its essence that â€Å"actually begins only where labour which is determined by necessity and mundane considerations ceases; thus in the very nature of things it lies beyond the sphere of actual material production† (Marx and Engels 441). They formulated this concept at the end of the 19th century, when the vast majority of people could imagine another world except the one they lived in.Advertising Looking for essay on philosophy? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Marx wanted to explain that people should not accept the idea of freedom as some kind of general notion that had no boundaries and restrictions. He conceived that freedom has several degrees because none moral (ethical) perspectives become crucial but political economy that requires particular levels, grades, and stages. Only a socialized person can have freedom together with numerous associated producers that have to regulate and control all interchanges by Nature but not vice versa. It appears that Marx and Engels supported the idea of civilization and its impact on human freedoms and actions: people cannot take a step in case it contradicts some initial instructions that civilization tries to implement. In the chapter IV of Capital, Marx introduces the idea of surplus value that also helps to define the true essence of human freedom and liberty. On the one hand, the idea to compare human freedoms with trade and political economy seems rather absurd and unclear. However, on the ot her hand, such spheres as politics and economics may also help to gain deep understanding of the concept of freedom and realize that even trade relations between people deprive them of the opportunity independently make decisions and live in accordance with personal demands. In the chapter VI of Capital, Marx continues developing the idea of surplus value and explains that freedom influences the development of buyer-seller relations and promotes activities by means of their free will. Marx’s attention to the real of necessity and real of freedom plays an important role when people start analyzing the world of economics to the world of personal freedoms and demands. People cannot always follow their dreams without breaking some rules civilization establishes. Because of such inability to combine personal freedoms and duties, Marx suggests people should pay more attention to the real of necessity in order to decrease time and human energy and to increase the level of human acti vities that people prefer to end independently. At the end of his investigations and analysis, Marx agrees that civilization has an impact on liberty, and the relations between the individual and society have to undergo some changes because economical influence remains considerable whatever conditions exist. Evaluation of Freud and Marx’s opinions. When people start thinking about the semi free society they expect to live in, the vast majority of them cannot comprehend why Marx chooses such a negative position and deprive people of the opportunity to become free and overcome challenges society creates. In comparison to Marx, Freud suggests accepting freedom as an illusion so that people do not have responsibility for anything. Some unknown forces such as ID ego, super ego, and alter ego have a control over human powers and demands, and people cannot gain control over them. When these two philosophers faced the idea of freedom and civilization, they had to take into account th e idea of disintegration or determination on both psychological and economical level. One of them says â€Å"Man (the worker) no longer feels himself to be freely active in any but his animal functions – eating, drinking, procreating, or at most in his dwelling and in dressing-up, etc; and in his human functions he no longer feels himself to be anything but an animal.† (Marx and Engels 74) Such attitude to people and their role in society appears abusive for many people who cannot accept the idea that their animal instincts have to perform the leading role, and their human demands and interests cannot influence their actions and thoughts. From his words, the idea of liberty becomes not only an illusion for people but also the determination of the belonging to animals those people truly believe to handle. In response to Marx’s definite cognition of human freedom and place, Freud exclaims that â€Å"The liberty of the individual is no gift of civilization. It was greatest before there was any civilization, though then, it is true, it had for the most part no value, since the individual was scarcely in a position to defend it.† (Freud 49) Within a short period, it becomes difficult to realize why such different attitudes to freedom and human dependence on civilization interest people in the same sphere. Marx’s approach deprives people of any opportunity to believe in personal dignity and the possibility to get freedom, and Freud admits that only gained deep knowledge may show the way to independence and freedom. The idea to make freedom available seems distant and even incomprehensible, and people have to pass a number of stages to prove their right to get freedom and make use of their independence gained. Conclusion In general, the evaluation of the concept of freedom plays a crucial role in the life of every person. The works of Freud and Marx help to comprehend that among the variety of attitudes to freedom and the individual role in civilization, people have to demonstrate their strong will and desire to achieve liberty by various means. Thought some problems and challenges appear on people’s way to cognition of this concept, people should lose hope to gain proper knowledge of this idea. Freud’s ideas of freedom influence some psychological aspects of life and explain that people do not have freedom due to alter and super egos. Marx denies all kind of freedom because his ideas prove that the individual and civilization come together, and civilization has already created a number of rules and limitations. In spite of differences of these two philosophers’ opinions, it becomes easier to define the essence of freedom in human life and the ideas of how this freedom influences human perception of their role in this world. Marx, Karl, and Friedrich Engles. The Marx-Engels Reader . Ed. Robert Tucker. Second Edition ed. Vol. 1. New York: W.W. Norton Company, Inc., 1978. Sigmund Freud. Ci vilizations and Its Discontents. Ed. Peter Gay and James Strachey. Standard Edition ed. Vol. 1. New York: W.W. Norton Company, Inc., 1961.

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Overview of the Glencoe Massacre

Overview of the Glencoe Massacre Conflict:Â  The Massacre at Glencoe was part of the repercussions of the Glorious Revolution of 1688. Date:Â  The MacDonalds were attacked on the night of February 13, 1692. Pressure Building Following the ascent of Protestant William III and Mary II to the English and Scottish thrones, many clans in the Highlands rose up in support of James II, their recently deposed Catholic king. Known as Jacobites, these Scots fought to return James to the throne but were defeated by Government troops in mid-1690. In the wake of James defeat at the Battle of the Boyne in Ireland, the former king withdrew to France to begin his exile. On August 27, 1691, William offered the Jacobite Highland clans a pardon for their role in the uprising provided that their chiefs swore allegiance to him by the end of the year. This oath was to be given to a magistrate and those who failed to appear before the deadline were threatened with harsh repercussions from the new king. Concerned over whether to accept Williams offer, the chiefs wrote to James asking his permission. Delaying over a decision as he still hoped to regain his throne, the former king finally accepted his fate and granted it late that fall. Word of his decision did not reach the Highlands until mid-December due to particularly harsh winter conditions. Upon receiving this message, the chiefs quickly moved to obey Williams command. The Oath Alastair MacIain, the chief of the MacDonalds of Glencoe, set out on December 31, 1691, for Fort William where he intended to give his oath. Arriving, he presented himself to Colonel John Hill, the governor, and stated his intentions to comply with the kings wishes. A soldier, Hill stated that he was not permitted to accept the oath and told him to see Sir Colin Campbell, the sheriff of Argyle, at Inveraray. Before the MacIain departed, Hill gave him a letter of protection and a letter explaining to Campbell that MacIain had arrived before the deadline. Riding south for three days, MacIain reached Inveraray, where he was forced to wait three more days to see Campbell. On January 6, Campbell, after some prodding, finally accepted MacIains oath. Departing, MacIain believed that he had fully complied with the kings wishes. Campbell forwarded MacIains oath and the letter from Hill to his superiors in Edinburgh. Here they were examined and a decision was made not to accept MacIains oath without a special warrant from the king. The paperwork was not, however, sent on and a plot was hatched to eliminate the MacDonalds of Glencoe. The Plot Apparently led by Secretary of State John Dalrymple, who had a hatred of the Highlanders, the plot sought to eliminate a troublesome clan while making an example for the others to see. Working with Sir Thomas Livingstone, the military commander in Scotland, Dalrymple secured the kings blessing for taking measures against those who had not given the oath in time. In late January, two companies (120 men) of the Earl of Argyles Regiment of Foot were sent to Glencoe and billeted with the MacDonalds. These men were specifically chosen as their captain, Robert Campbell of Glenlyon, had seen his land plundered by the Glengarry and Glencoe MacDonalds after the 1689 Battle of Dunkeld. Arriving in Glencoe, Campbell and his men were warmly greeted by MacIain and his clan. It appears that Campbell was unaware of his actual mission at this point, and he and men graciously accepted MacIains hospitality. After peacefully coexisting for two weeks, Campbell received new orders on February 12, 1692, following the arrival of Captain Thomas Drummond. That No Man Escape Signed by Major Robert Duncanson, the orders stated, You are hereby ordered to fall upon the rebels, the MacDonalds of Glencoe, and put all to the sword under seventy. You are to have special care that the old fox and his sons do upon no account escape your hands. You are to secure all the avenues that no man escape. Pleased to have an opportunity to exact revenge, Campbell issued orders for his men to attack at 5:00 AM on the 13th. As dawn approached, Campbells men fell upon the MacDonalds in their villages of Invercoe, Inverrigan, and Achacon. MacIain was killed by Lieutenant John Lindsay and Ensign John Lundie, though his wife and sons managed to escape. Through the glen, Campbells men had mixed feelings about their orders with several warning their hosts of the coming attack. Two officers, Lieutenants Francis Farquhar, and Gilbert Kennedy refused to take part and broke their swords in protest. Despite these hesitations, Campbells men killed 38 MacDonalds and put their villages to the torch. Those MacDonalds who survived were forced to flee the glen and an additional 40 died from exposure. Aftermath As news of the massacre spread across Britain, an outcry rose against the king. While sources are unclear as to whether William knew the full extent of the orders he signed, he quickly moved to have the matter investigated. Appointing a commission of inquiry in early 1695, William awaited their findings. Completed June 25, 1695, the commissions report declared that the attack was murder, but exonerated the king stating that his instructions regarding repercussions did not extend to the massacre. The majority of the blame was placed on Dalrymple; however, he was never punished for his role in the affair. In the wake of the report, the Scottish Parliament requested an address to the king to be drawn up calling for the punishment of the conspirators and suggesting compensation to surviving MacDonalds. Neither occurred, though the MacDonalds of Glencoe were permitted to return to their lands where they lived in poverty due to the loss of their property in the attack.

Monday, November 4, 2019

Assessing the Health Status of a Client Assignment

Assessing the Health Status of a Client - Assignment Example The assessment leads to the main problem. I introduced myself to my client and asked how I may help him. The man stated that the main reason for coming to the hospital was because lately, he was experiencing the frequent earache. In health assessment, collecting subjective and objective data is of paramount importance. These two stages form a good basis for diagnosis hence if not accurately done will lead to an improper diagnosis. Weber and Kelley (2009), simply define subjective data as the client’s perception of his health. That is, this kind of data can only be verified by the client, thus, the nurse must be equipped with effective interviewing skills. To get this, the health officer has to inquire about the client’s past health history, family history, and health and lifestyle practices. In addition, get biographical data like name and occupation; physical symptoms related to the ears and cultural practices. This is because some medical conditions like cancer may be passed down the family tree. Past health history helps in knowing how long the client has suffered from the disease or whether the complication is a new development. The client may also be engaging in a lifestyle or occupation that puts his health at risk. For instance, too much exposure to loud noise may be the cause of the hearing problems. My client is called Tom Robinson. He is an Engineer who has worked in a food processing factory for five years. He also loves music and uses earphones quite often. His office is located next to the factory’s main processor but it does not have sound proof walls. So, Tom can still hear the loud noise from his office. Nobody in the family has ever had ear problems. Tom says that he usually experiences this pain when he lies down to sleep, early in the morning and after getting off his earphones. The pain has been consistent for the last three weeks and often leads to a mild headache. Weber and Kelley (2009) say that objective data is veri fied by the examiner. This data is mainly obtained through observation, thus, the examiner must be thoroughly equipped with the four examination techniques. Objective data includes physical characteristics like skin and eye color; body functions like heartbeat and respiratory rate; measurements of blood pressure, temperature, height, and weight; mood; results of laboratory testing and X-ray findings. Objective data aids the doctor in diagnosing the main problem. Through this kind of data, the medic is able to know what is happening even in the internal organs of the client. For instance, an earache can be a pointer to a hidden problem like Tonsillitis but can only be verified after objective data is collected. My client had a temperature of forty degrees Celsius but normal heartbeat and blood pressure.  Ã‚  

Friday, November 1, 2019

Study skills Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Study skills - Essay Example It is, quite literally, a case of survival of the fittest (Moore, 2010, pp. 19-28). The most organized, the most efficient, and the best rounded will be the ones coming out on top. Never have study skills been more important than when students are in university. Most of the time, students that get admission in a university are those that have, for the most part, been good at organizing their time, keeping up with their study assignments, and on top of their quizzes and tests (Roberts, 2006, pp. 23-25). Furthermore, good university students are those that possess the adequate skills of prioritizing; students that can juggle their academics with their extracurricular activities and jobs tend to do well. This skill is especially important in university because when a student comes from a school and is presented with ten-fold the opportunities on a university campus, temptations and the urge to participate in many activities and sports can cause the students to fall into the trap where they have more on their plate than they can handle. It becomes important then for students to recognize which extracurricular activities to choose to engage in, keeping in mind the real reason they are in university: to study (Moore, 2010, pp. 19-28). A good student will use their skills of prioritizing to analyze their workload and then decide what non-academic activities to participate in. In this way, never in their time at university will they feel overwhelmed by the demands of their extracurricular activities. Another personal skill that is important in university is that of being efficient and productive. Students should not waste their time on ‘useless’ pass times and should use their free hours as productively as possible. Keeping on top of their homework, their papers and not waiting until the deadline are always the signs of a good student (Floyd, 2007, pp. 49-55). Another study skill one must strive to have is that of studying and keeping up with the coursework on a