Saturday, December 21, 2019

The Theory Of Free Will - 950 Words

As a concept, free will offers a tremendous opportunity to pursue rationality of purpose. Within this rationality, individuals find wisdom whenever they exercise it appropriately. Both Skinner and Bandura state that free will explore the determinant to the ability of humanity to discover the space around them (Koons, 2002). Over time, philosophers have maintained that free will offers itself as a gift to humanity. It is presumed, therefore, that free will is God’s ordination, and as such, man should not precede it. In the same vein, the authors suggest that, if not exercised properly, free will becomes a curse, a total scourge to humanity. In this context, free will can transmute into a deadly weapon that impedes the general well-being of†¦show more content†¦Skinner and Bandura in their studies acknowledged that determinist ideologists have a way of conceptualizing the significance of socializing while recognizing that certain sets of behavior often guide such associ ations. Bandura and Skinner acknowledge that compatibilist thinking appreciates that the allocating of praise and blame as effective ways of securing social control among societies. Determinists, therefore, have a way of encouraging individuals to undertake labeling acts that put individuals’ actions on the glare of either right or wrong. Within these considerations, Bandura and Skinner promote that punishing the persons who commit acts seen in the estimation of the society, as wrongs are necessary to perpetuate the determinist ideology. (Shultz, 2013) On the other hand, rewarding the individuals who commit acts deemed as right in the estimation of the society are needed, as this will most likely make the society a flawless institution. Under these schemes of things, liberty is the tag of an ideal society, and every society must strive to partake of the norm. Skinner observes that humanity has a duty to enhance freedom as a societal norm in all societies. Accordingly, this is the first step in advancing the concept of free will as a societal embracement. Finally, within compatibilist ideologies, the idea of free will donate new certainties that reinforce old beliefs that clash with false views in the process. While

Friday, December 13, 2019

Jackal Reaction Paper Free Essays

In â€Å"Moral Mazes†, Robert Jackal explores the elements of bureaucracy and its influencing prevailing form in the American work environment in the different organizational levels of hierarchy. Upon reading this businesses best seller, I was very skeptical about Jackal’s research and ideas. Jackal’s study, scrutinizing only a handful of large and mid-sized companies, gave me the impression of lack of breadth. We will write a custom essay sample on Jackal Reaction Paper or any similar topic only for you Order Now However, the meticulous and depth of the study of each of these organizations truly gave me a great sense of credulousness. Although I believe that not all the companies behave the way Jackal portrays his selected companies, they do illustrate common aspects that I can observe in real corporations and in my own work place. This reaction paper will explore specific areas of â€Å"Moral Mazes† that illustrate organizational culture in American businesses and how bureaucratic organizational structure maps out moral consciousness that relate directly to my personal and professional life. These specific areas of discussion include: inner circles and connections; decentralization and accountability; team player versus self-promotion; and finally, image and public illusion. Jackall introduces Max Weber’s description of the Protestant ethic as to the set of beliefs and binding social rules that guide the methodical, rational subjection of human impulse and desire to God’s will through â€Å"restless, continuous, systematic work in a worldly calling† (Jackall, 2010, p. 6). Furthermore, Jackall presents Weber’s Prussian model of bureaucracy, which is objective, close to detail, standardized, impersonal and separates the offices from persons (Jackall, 2010, p. 10). I agree with Jackall that these two terms, Protestant ethic and the Prussian model of bureaucracy, are idealistic systems in which any kind organization would run efficiently and smoothly. The reason why I support these ideas is because I believe hard work, like the Protestant ethic preaches, can lead someone towards success. Moreover, with Weber’s Prussian model of bureaucracy, processes would be fair and objective. Unfortunately, I also believe that these are not the sole ingredients to succeed. Protestant ethics eventually lead people to accumulate wealth, which then sparked a domino effect towards bureaucracy. Jackall describes patrimonial bureaucracy, which was the organizational form of kings and princes, as personal loyalty being the norm, not loyalty to an office (Jackall, 2010, p. 11). However, modern American organizations are administrated as a hybrid between the pure form of bureaucracy and the patrimonial bureaucracy (Jackall, 2010, p. 11). This leads me into my first point of inner circles and connections. Even Jackall himself ironically channeled through bureaucratic elevators through the core of his study that was the basis of this book. Originally, Jackall was rejected by thirty six different corporations that did not want to be ethically studied and gave suspicious excuses like they were going through â€Å"transitional phases† and that there were no tangible organizational benefits to be gained from a study of managerial ethics. Talking to the right people however, Jackall was â€Å"vouched for† and was able to penetrate several high ranked executives in the few companies that he meticulously studied as well as gained the trust of many managers that gave him great insight upon ethical issues within their organizations. Jackall illustrates this â€Å"if you know people, you’ll go to places† idea once again in Chapter 2 with the example of Weft Corporation’s new CEO who staffed all key positions with people form his inner circles as well as with people who served under him in the Army during World War II (Jackal, 2010 p. 35). I agree with Jackall that connections can lead you to places because I have a friend that got a very prestigious managerial position in a big insurance company in Canada where his uncle is currently CEO. When CEO’s have power it is said to be a centralized business, however, decentralization creates a more efficient spectrum in the business side of the organization. As Jackall states, decentralization pushes down responsibilities and decisions as far down the organizational line as possible (Jackall, 2010, p. 18). In a decentralized structure, it gives top executives to take credit for positive outcomes and wash their hands when there are failures by pushing down details along with responsibilities and decisions. This was the case with Enron and the top executives playing dumb when everyone was trying to point fingers. For example, Kenneth Lay, former CEO and chairman of Enron, genuinely believed and accepted that he did not know anything about the Enron scandals and procedures. This is an example of lack of accountability and how pushing down details allows superiors to get off the hook. Another important consequence that pushing down of details create is the fact that middle managers, who know the details, become the â€Å"point men† or â€Å"fall guys† when things go wrong (Jackal, 2010, p. 22). This lack of accountability is truly disturbing and unfair. In my old job at a stainless steel company where I worked in the marketing department, a coworker got blamed for missing a deadline that was not clearly stated by her manager. She almost ended up losing her job and, instead of being accountable for the mistake, her manager blamed her for not paying close attention to her instructions. My next point of discussion involves the relationship between being a â€Å"team player† and the concept of â€Å"every man for himself†. Like Jackall states that, in order to get ahead, one must be a team player. Jackall uses an analogy where a football team is the organization. For example, the quarter back is the boss and a player is anyone who has a stake in and is involved in a decision, etc. I only partially agree with Jackall’s view where being a team player will get you ahead because in some way one must play as a team and cooperate with one another in order to reach similar goals. However, I lean more towards Jackall’s cynical and somber reality of individuality and self-promotion. I believe that one can get ahead by how he presents himself and how well he sells himself. Like Jackall explains, one sells oneself and will differentiate from others with the right style (Jackall, 2010, p. 0). I recently got an internship with Northwestern Mutual. They are currently ranked in the top ten internship programs in the country. I personally do not have a stacked up resume or anything like that, but I sold myself very well in the initial interview, presented myself even better and left them with a memorable first impression. In order to leave a la sting and impressive self-brand one must â€Å"dress for success†. Like Jackall describes, bureaucracies not only rationalize work, buy they rationalize people’s public face (Jackall, 2010, p. 49). I could not agree more with Jackall on this idea. I believe that image and professionalism separates the dominating and strong from the weak. Even if it is a facade, external appearances are critical. This part of the â€Å"mask† that Jackall mentions throughout this book. In relation to image Jackall mentions public perception or illusion in one of his interviews: â€Å"The whole thing becomes a complicated game of maintaining the public perception, the illusion really, that I’m on the move† (Jackall, 2010, p. 47). I believe that task oriented skills will only get you so far, but it is the perception that you have on others what is truly going to propel you. Concluding this paper, I want to remark the importance of networking, connections and relationships one nurtures throughout one’s personal and professional career. One never knows which will become an important stepping-stone towards a successful and happy career. In relation to decentralizing organizations, it is easy for top executives to wash their hands when something goes wrong. Being accountable not only shows character, it is also the right thing to do. Moreover, balancing both factors of â€Å"team player† and â€Å"self-promotion† not only will one have a strong equilibrium but will also maintain the right tools to get ahead successfully. Finally, wearing that â€Å"mask† and portraying the illusion to maintain a strong image is a dependable skill worth polishing and implementing. I originally thought of Moral Mazes as a difficult read due to the sophisticated and eloquent language used by Jackall, but I quickly caught into it, especially re-reading certain sections after our class discussions. It really surprised me how people’s perceptions differ throughout the different situational and moral dilemmas. Even though it is financially difficult to achieve, it would be interesting to read a large-scale study version of Moral Mazes. 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Thursday, December 5, 2019

Unemployment in Australia in Last 5 Years †Myassignmenthelp.Com

Question: Discuss About the Unemployment in Australia in Last 5 Years? Answer: Introduction In current, unemployment has become a serious issue that mainly exists in the economies of the nations. It has become a major subject of concern for most of the nation. The increased rate of unemployment is influencing the economic growth and development of nations in a negative manner. The situation of unemployment occurs if a nation is unable to provide jobs to its unemployed people. Along with this, unemployment is a key measure that is required to determine economy health of a nation in an effectual and a more comprehensive manner. But, nowadays, the problem of unemployment is rising very fast; and it may create difficulties in the economic growth as well as development of a country. Moreover, the problem of unemployment is also exists in the economy of Australia. The economy of Australia is stronger than any other nation; but unemployment made the economy weak somewhat. On the other hand, unemployment rate of Australia has increased in recent years. But, in 2016, there can be seen a decrease in the unemployment rate of nation. Moreover, this research essay is useful to describe the major facts and concepts related to unemployment of Australia. This essay is beneficial to conduct an effective research to portray the situation of unemployment in Australia in last five years. Moreover, this research essay develops an obvious comprehension about unemployment in order to enhance the knowledge of researchers in an effectual manner. The essay is precious to show the unemployment rate, issues, sorts, government arrangements, and so on with regards to Australia. Also, secondary data are used in this research essay to portray the major aspects of unemployment in the context of Australia. On the whole, this research essay is advantageous to provide a concise study on Unemployment in Australia in recent years. Unemployment in Australia in Last 5 Years At present times, unemployment is a serious issue and also becoming more and more serious on the regular basis. It can be considered a major economic problem to entire world. The expression unemployment focuses towards the general population of a country who are jobless. Such individuals are otherwise called 'occupation searchers' who try all their conceivable endeavors to discover fitting employments as indicated by their insight and abilities. Unemployment rate speaks to the rate of jobless individuals or the aggregate work constrain exists in the economy of a country. These individuals do their best to look for some kind of employment in a dynamic way (Richardson, 2006). Besides, the unemployment rate of a country is ascertained by partitioning the quantities of unemployed individuals with quantities of accessible workforce. The conditions of unemployment happen at what time individuals are jobless and looking for occupation. Moreover, at the season of retreat, there can be seen a n expansion in the work rate of a country. It is a direct result of it diminishes the request of work compel in the economy of a specific country. In addition, business associations make utilization of cost-cutting methodologies at the season of retreat (ABS. 2017). In this way, there can be seen an expansion in the unemployment rate of a country. Along with this, the other certainty is that the unemployment rate is vacillated. It is not consistent. It changes as per the market request and financial circumstance of a specific country. The report of ILO assigns that, in the year 2012, around six rate of the aggregate work compel of the world was without an occupation. Also, it is perceived that, the monetary state of Australia is more grounded than whatever other nation all around the globe. The GDP rate of Australia is expanding consistently. It is an indication of enhanced financial state of country. The enhanced monetary condition assumes a noteworthy part to diminish the unemployment rate of a specific country (Skattebol, Hill, Griffiths and Wong, 2015). In addition, the underneath graph is important to show the expanded GDP rate of Australia: (Source: TRADING ECONOMICS. 2017). On the premise of the above diagram, a constant increment can be expected in the yearly GDP rate of Australia. A standard increment in the GDP rate indicates the ideal financial state of the country. Additionally, good financial state of country assumes a noteworthy part to diminish the unemployment rate of that country in a strong and a critical way. In addition to this, there can be seen a diminishing in the unemployment rate of the country lately. At the end of the day, it additionally can be said that, the unemployment rate of Australia has been declined because of the enhanced economy of the country (Sriramesh and Vercic, 2009). As of late, the unemployment rate of Australia is lower than the earlier years. A diagram is offered underneath to delineate the unemployment rate of Australia in a precise way: (Source: TRADING ECONOMICS. 2017) On the premise of the above chart, plainly, the unemployment rate of Australia was 5.7% in 2016 that is lower than the earlier years. As it were, it likewise can be said that, in 2016, the unemployment rate of Australia has dropped around 5.7 percent; and the present unemployment rate is lower than the previous years (Palmer, 2017). The diminished unemployment rate indicates the most grounded employment development inside the country. In addition, as per Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS), it can be measured a bewilder increment in the business rate of Australia. Along with this, as indicated by the report of ABS, the unemployment rate of country was high in the earlier years. There can be seen a general increment in the unemployment rate of Australia. Be that as it may, it is diminishing now (Australian Bureau of Statistics. 2005). A table is offered underneath to depict the unemployment rate of country in a precise and an appropriate way: Year Unemployment Rate 2011 5.00 2012 5.20 2013 5.60 2014 6.00 2015 6.30 2016 5.80 On the premise of the information given in the above table, one might say that, the unemployment rate of Australia was high in the earlier years. The rate was 5%, 5.2%, 5.6%, 6.0%, 6.3%, and 5.8% in the year 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, and 2016 correspondingly. In this way, there can be seen a normal increment in the unemployment rate of Australia in past years. The expanded unemployment rate focuses towards the ominous financial circumstance of Australia (Gans, King, Libich, Byford, Mankiw and Stonecash, 2014). In addition, the Australian government is additionally dependable behind the expanded unemployment rate of country. It is a direct result of the legislature of country did not offer occupations to the employment searchers or unemployed individuals inside country. Along these lines, they were moving to other country looking for occupations. As an outcome, the unemployment rate of country expanded rapidly and furthermore turns into a noteworthy subject of stress to the admini stration of country. In perspective of that, the Australian government has chosen to give work to unemployment individuals of nation. Thus, in 2016, there can be seen a decrease in the unemployment rate of Australia (Ara Haque and Haque, 2008). The diminished unemployment rate is useful for the economy of country. The beneath diagram is helpful to depict the most recent unemployment rate of Australia: (Source: TRADING ECONOMICS. 2017) Moreover, truly, the unemployment rate of Australia has been lessened in the previous years. However, it doesn't imply that the issue of unemployment has been comprehended for all time. The beneath graph is useful to depict the Australian unemployment percent for the term 2003-2015. There can be seen a decrease in the unemployment percent from period 2003-2008. Also, the unemployment rate of Australia was 4.1% in March 2008 (Helpman, Itskhoki and Redding, 2010). It was the most reduced unemployment rate that has never been seen again in this century. In the above diagram, unmistakably, the unemployment rate is varied. It has expanded after 2008. In 2016, there can be seen an abatement in the Australian unemployment rate. The expanded unemployment rate of country is as yet a noteworthy subject of stress to the country. In perspective of that, the Australian government must create successful plans and in addition techniques to produce work or employments inside country. These systems would have the capacity to lessen unemployment rate and furthermore support the economy of the country in an adequate and a critical way (IndexMundi. 2016). In addition to this, there are four noteworthy sorts of unemployment. The Australian government must see every one of these sorts of unemployment and make occupations or livelihoods in like manner. Structural Unemployment: Structural unemployment is the premier sort of unemployment that may exist in the economy of a country. This kind of unemployment for the most part happens when a work showcase ends up plainly weak to give occupations to every one of the general population who are searching for employments. Alongside this, basic unemployment happens in light of the contrasts between the required aptitudes by occupation gives and abilities workers have (Richardson, 2006). Furthermore, this kind of unemployment concentrates on the auxiliary issues as well as insufficiencies that exist in the work advertise and additionally economy of a country. Cyclical Unemployment: Cyclical unemployment is the other sort of unemployment. This kind of unemployment by and large happens when there is a nonattendance of total request of work constrain in the economy of the country. In this circumstance, the administration of country can't give employments to every one of the general population who are searching for occupations. Additionally, in the repetitive unemployment, the quantity of unemployed individuals will be more than the quantity of employments accessible in the economy of a country (Sriramesh and Vercic, 2009). Frictional Unemployment: This is another kind of unemployment that for the most part happens in a country. At the point when a major distinction happens between the representatives and jobs than it can be viewed as a sort of frictional unemployment in the economy of a country. Besides, these distinctions can be connected with aptitudes, states of mind, work time, installments, area, and other main considerations connected to a business. Alongside this, frictional unemployment occurs because of disappointment among representatives with the occupations that they have done before (Ara Haque and Haque, 2008). In this circumstance, specialists try all their conceivable endeavors to inquiry employments and move starting with one occupation then onto the next employment to get full fulfillment. Seasonal Unemployment: This kind of unemployment happens because of the regular business of business firms. Tourism, development, and cultivating are the significant cases of regular business. In this sort of unemployment business firms procure work compel as per their needs and market requests. There are bunches of business firm those offer regular work to the general population who are searching for occupations. Unemployed individuals can catch openings in such kind of business (Richardson, 2006). As a result, one might say that, the above talked about are the real sorts of unemployment that ordinarily happen in the economy of a country. The administration must consider such sorts of unemployment to enhance the work level appropriately. Real Issues Related to Unemployment It is outstanding that, unemployment is a significant issue that exists in the economy of countries. In addition, the expanded unemployment rate makes various issues before countries. For case, expanded unemployment rate for the most part make social and monetary issues that are perilous for the general development of countries. The unemployment rate indicates the low salary of individuals; and low wage is an image of low usage of cash by the general population of country (Higley, Nieuwenhuysen and Neerup, 2011). Also, low utilization rate impact the economy of a country in a negative way. It is a result of the diminished utilization rate shows that individuals are unwilling to purchase their coveted items as a result of an inadequacy of cash. The lower utilization rate additionally impacts the free market activity sides of the commercial center. The fundamental explanation for it is that, individuals don't have adequate assets to buy all their coveted items and in addition administr ations. In perspective of that, the expanded unemployment rate and diminished utilization rate have negative effect on the financial development of a country (Murphy, 2013). Also, the expanded unemployment rate of country impacts the administration spending contrarily. The principle explanation for it is that, in the circumstance of high unemployment rate, the legislature can't gather charges and different charges from people in general; and along these lines the administration does not have adequate assets to spend on social welfare and foundation of a country. The expanded business rate negatively affects the way of life of individuals. It is a result of they don't have any wellspring of wage to raise their way of life appropriately (Castaeda, Serrani and Sperotti, 2012). As a result, the expanded unemployment rate makes money related, social, and financial inconveniences to the general population. These budgetary, social, and financial inconveniences are perilous to the improvement and development of countries. Moreover, there are various components that by and large produce the circumstance of unemployment in the economy of countries. For instance, enormous contrasts between the required aptitudes and abilities of individuals may make the issue of unemployment. These distinctions happen as a result of various reasons. For case, topographical contrasts, mechanical changes, word related stability, social contrasts, auxiliary changes in the economy of countries, and so forth can be viewed as real reasons of irregularity between required aptitudes and the abilities that individuals have (Seal and Penrith, 2008). As an outcome, it can accept that, unemployment a difficult issue that produces numbers issues, for example, money related, social, and financial issues in the economy of countries. These issues have various negative effects on the development, achievement and advancement of economy of countries. Government Policies to Reduce Unemployment within Nation In earlier years, the expanded unemployment rate had turned into a noteworthy subject of worry for the administration of Australia. The Australian government endeavor all its conceivable endeavors to diminish the unemployment rate inside country. As a result, there can be seen a diminishing in the unemployment rate of Australia in 2016. The Australian government is making and actualizing diverse procedures and strategies to decrease the unemployment rate that exists in the economy of country. At the end of the day, it can be accepted that, the Australian government is assuming various essential parts to gather unemployment rate and upgrade work rate in country. The Australian government is attempting every one of its endeavors to give employments to jobless individuals. It is likewise attempting to create openings for work; so the occupation searchers may land positions as indicated by their abilities and training (Milner, Morrell and LaMontagne, 2014). Along with this, the Australian government has gained huge ground in its financial approaches and work and welfare strategies in the earlier years to decrease unemployment rate in a useful way. Besides, the administration assembled steady and all around tuned macroeconomic approaches and furthermore built up an inventive climate of entrepreneurialism inside country. It grew well-working and in addition aggressive markets to produce openings for work and to give employments to the unemployed individuals. Moreover, the legislature rolled out improvements in the business game plans and work conditions also. For case, the administration created adaptable business plans and in addition conditions to underwrite efficiency at the working environment (Carvalho, 2015). With the assistance of these adaptable courses of action, jobless individuals wind up noticeably ready to land positions as per their inclinations. Like this, it can be expected that, these more adaptable game plans diminished the unemployment rate inside country. It is a result of with the assistance of these plans and conditions, more unemployed individuals wind up plainly ready to get legitimate work themselves. Moreover, doubtlessly, unemployment is for the most part dangerous for youths. It is a result of long haul unemployment consumes confidence of individuals. By considering these certainties, the Australian government embraced and executes coalition arrangement to empower work inside country. For case, with the assistance of this coalition arrangement, the administration will give a vocation responsibility reward installment to the general population who are unemployed and trying endeavors to discover reasonable employments. Furthermore, with the assistance of these rewards, adolescents would be inspired and bother free also. As indicated by the Australian government, the coalition approach will be useful to improve workforce interest and in addition profitability. It is a direct result of this strategy is putting forth motivators to those individuals who are finding and keeping a vocation for quite a while period (Kearns, 2013). Like this, the coalition arrangement created by the admi nistration diminishes the unemployment rate; as well as lifts the confidence of adolescents also. The coalition approach will likewise be valuable to start new measures to help jobseekers with employments, to grow workforce cooperation and to enhance profitability in an efficacious and a more thorough way. In addition to this, the Australian government built up various powerful approaches to raise the cooperation of work compel into empty occupations. For case, the acquaintance of the welfare with work bundle is a noteworthy case of such sorts of arrangements. These arrangements assume a noteworthy part to diminishing reliance on the welfare and augment motivations to enter the workforce into occupations. Moreover, the Australian government and RBA (Reserve Bank of Australia) diminished the loan fees to enhance the business level and wages of representatives inside country. It is outstanding that high unemployment rate decreases the wages of representatives. The RBA has chosen to lessen financing costs to raise work and wages inside country (Milner, Morrell and LaMontagne, 2014). Like this, one might say that, the Australian government is attempting its best to decrease unemployment rate and make occupations keeping in mind the end goal to enhance the economy of the country. Conclusion On the preface of the above examination, unemployment is a serious issue that is creating troubles for the economy of nation. The problem of unemployment is being serious day by day. Along with this, it can be inferred that, Australia is confronting the issue of unemployment nonstop after the year 2008. After the financial crisis of 2007-208, the unemployment has become a serious issue to all over the world. The unemployment rate of the Australia has expanded over the most recent five years. But, there can be seen a lessening in the unemployment rate in the year 2016 and 2017. Moreover, it is also observed that, the government of nation is very serious towards the issue of unemployment inside country. As a consequence, the Australian government is creating powerful plans, arrangements and methodologies to lessen the unemployment rate within nation. The government is serious for the positive economic growth and development of the nation. The improved economy is essential for the overa ll growth and development of nation. Due to the efforts of the Australian government, the unemployment rate has decreased in the previous year. The decreased unemployment rate indicates towards the economic growth of nation in recent years. References ABS. (2017). Labour Force, Australia. Available At: [Accessed On: 23rd May 2017] Ara Haque, R. and Haque, M.O. (2008). Gender, Ethnicity and Employment: Non-English Speaking Background Migrant Women in Australia. USA: Springer Science Business Media. Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2005). Year Book Australia: 2006, Issue 88. Australia: Aust. Bureau of Statistics. Carvalho, P. (2015). Youth unemployment in Australia. Policy: A Journal of Public Policy and Ideas, 31(4), p.36. Castaeda, A.S., Serrani, L. and Sperotti, F. (2012). Youth Unemployment and Joblessness: Causes, Consequences, Responses. Australia: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. Gans, J., King, S., Libich, J., Byford, M., Mankiw, G. and Stonecash, R. (2014). Principles of Economics PDF. Australia: Cengage Learning Australia. Helpman, E., Itskhoki, O. and Redding, S. (2010). Inequality and unemployment in a global economy. Econometrica, 78(4), pp. 1239-1283. Higley, J., Nieuwenhuysen, J.P. and Neerup, S. (2011). Immigration and the Financial Crisis: The United States and Australia Compared. USA: Edward Elgar Publishing. IndexMundi. (2016). Australia Unemployment rate. Available At: [Accessed On: 23rd May 2017] Kearns, K. (2013). The Big Picture PDF. Australia: Cengage Learning Australia. Milner, A., Morrell, S. and LaMontagne, A.D. (2014). Economically inactive, unemployed and employed suicides in Australia by age and sex over a 10-year period: what was the impact of the 2007 economic recession? International journal of epidemiology, p.dyu148. Murphy, P.J. (2013). A Decent Provision: Australian Welfare Policy, 1870 to 1949. Australia: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.. Palmer, D. (2017). Unemployment rate steady at 5.9pc in March as 60,000 jobs gained. Available At: [Accessed On: 23rd May 2017] Richardson, S. (2006). Unemployment in Australia. Available At: [Accessed On: 23rd May 2017] Seal, J.M., and Penrith, D. (2008). Live Work in Australia. Australia: Crimson Publishing. Skattebol, J., Hill, T., Griffiths, A. and Wong, M. (2015). Unpacking Youth Unemployment. Research Report 15, Social Policy Research Centre, UNSW, Sydney. Sriramesh, K. and Vercic, D. (2009). The Global Public Relations Handbook, Revised and Expanded Edition: Theory, Research, and Practice. NY: Routledge. TRADING ECONOMICS. (2017). Australia GDP Annual Growth Rate. Available At: [Accessed On: 23rd May 2017] TRADING ECONOMICS. (2017). Australia Unemployment Rate. Available At: [Accessed On: 23rd May 2017